Human-Robot Interaction

Human-Robot Interactions: Types of interaction and equipment integration

Generally speaking, there are three types of interactions between humans and robots: coexistence, cooperation and collaboration (ISO/ TS 15066-2016). In coexistence interactions, a robot and an operator function at different times in separated workspaces. In this case, a protective barrier surrounds the robot, which is locked including access doors. This barrier limits human access while the robot is in operation mode. Consequently, an operator must stop the robot operation for maintaining the robot and other locked equipment. This form of interaction is the predominant mode of operation for industrial robots in manufacturing at the moment. In cooperative interactions, operator and robot work towards a shared goal in the same workspace, but task execution is realised at different times. As human and robot share the same workspace, operations require adequate safety measures in place, for example, progressive padding, pressure mats and laser-based safety curtains. In collaborative interactions, an operator and a robot perform shared tasks within the same workspace and at the same time. Considering an operator and a robot work in such vicinity, the three factors, that is, force, speed and path of the robot must be controlled.

Collaborative interactions are an evolution in the field of robotics and represents one of the primary areas of focus for the DigiTOP project. 

In DigiTOP, a set of resources have been developed and collected to assist manufactures to robotise a manufacturing process. This includes the type of sensors that can be used in a collaborative context, sensors integration, wearable sensors, and Robot Operating System (ROS) packages to integrate the given sensors. In addition to that, DigiTOP provides guidelines on co-manipulation and co-assembly tasks, which include tips on what sensors, data models and control strategies can be used in such operations. Finally, the project provides relevant papers and datasets that can be used for decision making when integrating collaborative robots in production lines.
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Introduction to HRI

Articles, reports, and resources to provide a general overview of human-robot interaction concepts

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Equipment & Experimental Setups

Details on equipment used within DigiTOP HRI research, experimental methods, and sensor integration frameworks

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Software and Data

A collection of downloadable software and data produced in DigiTOP studies